Posted by Vanessa Fabrizio, MSIV Drexel University College of Medicine
FOOTBALL: the most popular sport in America. Little boys dream of growing up and playing in high school, then college, then hopefully the NFL. Even little girls dream of dating football players in school or marrying a NFL superstar.
Those who have never played football can pour money into the sport by simply watching it on TV or more drastically via sports betting. With advancements in the sport and the increasing athelticism of the players, the injury risk has drastically increased while the lifetime of a player in the NFL has decreased. More attention is being brought to the media about concussion and their long term sequelae in professional athletes, yet not enough people question how well the helmets are actually working.
What is a concussion?
Concussion: a mild traumatic brain injury that leads to a temporary loss of brain function. Symptoms of a concussion are commonly headaches, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, difficultly on ones feet and balancing, and loss of fine motor coordination. Other symptoms can include light sensitivity, blurry vision, tinnitus, and can even produce seizures. Most individuals who experience a concussion will also experience post-traumatic amnesia and experience difficulty paying attention and disorientation. Post concussive syndrome exists and these symptoms can linger for months affecting lifestyle in many ways.
Treatment for concussion is typically and simply rest. Avoiding head trauma is key to recovery.
Football is not the only sport where its players experience concussions. Boxing is an extremely dangerous sport and many of its victims experience neurological deficits due to their involvement. Soccer, basketball, volleyball, softball, and baseball to name a few all have increased risks of concussions greater than the general public.
This video demonstrates that not only professional players are at risk as it shows a 12yr old on the wrong end of a “hard hit”.
What do the studies say about helmet protection?
Recently an article in the LA times was published that talked about how the American Academy of Neurology is currently studying the effectiveness of different football helmets on the market today and how well they decrease concussion rates. The research that will be presented is showing that no helmet on the market today is actual effective in preventing concussions. However, it appears that the helmet this study rated as number 1, was rated last in a study at Virginia-Tech Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences. Obviously this shows that our testing of how effective helmets work isn’t standardized yet or up to par. As mentioned above, the sport of football itself has advanced so now helmets need to advance and the testing of the efficacy of these new helmets need to advance as well.
Should we encourage children to stop playing football to prevent them harm? As an avid football lover myself, I think that this is not the solution. We need to continue to raise media attention in order to expedite the process of creating these newer, safer helmets. Education about concussions need to be taught to young athletes as well as appropriate tackling measures to ensure safety. The NFL association has been good about updating the rules and regulations of the game to ensure player safety with fines and penalties for unnecessary roughness and hits. Lets hope they continue this way and it continues to trickle down all the way to the peewee leagues.
CLick here to link to the LA times article.
Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) is regarded by most scholars to be the founder of modern neurology.
Known to be an excellent clinical teacjer, he was a professor at the University of Paris for 33 years and was associated with Paris’s Salpêtrière Hospital that lasted throughout his life, ultimately becomiwas known as an excellent medical teacher, and he attracted students from all over Europe. His focus turned to neurology, and he is called by some the founder of modern neurology.
Charcot took an interest in hysteria, a mental disorder with physical manifestations, which he believed to be the result of an inherited weak neurological system, set off by a traumatic event like an accident
He learned the technique of hypnosis to evaluate these patients, and very quickly became a master of the relatively new “science.”
He believed that a hypnotized state was very similar to a bout of hysteria, and so he hypnotized his patients in order to induce and study their symptoms.
Charcot’s work also included other aspects of neurology – he was first to describe the degeneration of ligaments and joint surfaces due to lack of use or control, now called Charcot’s joint. He discovered the importance of small arteries in cerebral hemorrhage. He described hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy.
He died in 1893 in Morvan, France.
The new movie focuses on his relationship with one hysterical patient named Agustine,
Click here to find out more about this.
Spinal Cord Injuries:
The incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) is around 1 per 100,000 visits (mostly thoracolumbar spine), usually caused caused by a simple fall, followed by hitting a tree.
The incidence of SCI for snow boarders is higher, around 4 per 100,000 visits (mostly cervical), and usually caused by a backward fall during a jump (>75%) or other tick.
Most SCIs in skiers and snow boarders occur in 15-25 years olds.
The incidence of head trauma is 3.8 per 100,000 ski visits, usually from direct collision with trees. The incidence of head trauma is higher for snow boarding, around 6.5 per 100,000 visits, more often caused by falling backwards. Most head traumas result in concussions, but 14% are severe head trauma, and 4% are fatal.
I came across this case report of another unusual neurologic skiing complication:
A 45-year old woman first developed distorted vision in the left eye, like looking through a kaleidoscope while skiing. Soon afterwards, her right leg started jerking, causing her to fall.
It turned out that she had sustained a left carotid artery dissection causing high grade stenosis during skiing.
There are a few other reports of cervical artery dissection from skiing.
The term concussion is derived from the Latin word “concutere” which means “to shake violently”:
This term is used to describe a head injury associated with a temporary loss of brain function, including impaired consciousness, cognitive dysfunction and/or emotional problems.
To fully understand Concussion’s Axis of Evil, one need look no further than the brutal world of professional boxing and it’s neurological complications.
One of the most savage beatings any fighter every received occurred on July 4, 1919 in Toledo, Ohio, when 24 year old Jack Dempsey destroyed 37 year old Jess Willard to become the Heavyweight Champion of the World.
One can easily spot the effects of concussion in Willard as he sustains blow after blow to the head, and he develops unsteady gait, erratic behavior (failing to avoid punches and protect himself) and ultimately unconsciousness.
New Jersey’s own Harrison S. Martland MD (1883-1954) was the first to report in 1928 that repeated beatings of this kind could lead to a delayed permanent neurologic syndrome referred to as punch drunk syndrome.
His observations went largely unheeded.
Muhammad Ali (born as Cassius Marcellus Clay in 1942) was only 22 when he became word heavyweight champion in 1964, almost 40 years after Martland’s paper was published.
Here is with Liberace in 1964:
Almost 10 years after that performance, Prof Corsellis reported further clinical and pathological features of punch drunk syndrome in his 1973 paper “The Aftermath of Boxing”.
Here’s data from one of his cases:
By 1983, Muhammad Ali was retired from professional boxing,
Obviously, repeated head trauma, and it’s consequences, is not unique to boxing:
His brain was examined as part of an ongoing study by Boston University’s Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy.
His brain showed the same pathologic changes as the Punch Drunk boxers.
This syndrome, more commonly referred to as Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, is now known to have occurred as a consequence of repeated head trauma in many other sports, including soccer, hockey, horse-racing and wrestling.
Then, there’s the Second Impact Syndrome (SIS).
SIS is said to be a rare, often fatal, traumatic brain injury that occurs when a repeat injury is sustained before symptoms of a previous head injury have resolved.
Although limited to single case reports, and disputed as a discrete syndrome in the scientific literature, SIS cases are young athletes and have become high profile in the media:
Click here to find out more about this case.
This data, as well as SIS cases, has led to a concern that the presence of ongoing concussive symptoms are a significant risk factor for further injury to occur, and that any residual symptoms should mandate restriction for further contact sport in young athletes.
Finally, it is know that concussions are under-reported by high school players.
A 2004 survey of 1500 varsity football payers in Milwaukee disclosed that although 15% had sustained a concussion during the season only 50% reported it to their coach or trainer.
So there we have it, Concussion’s Axis of Evil:
And the solution?
The Allies Against Concussion:
Click here to find out more about the Matthew J. Morahan III Health Assessment Center for athletes at Barnabas Heath.
Preventing, evaluating and managing sports related concussions is a hot topic right now.
For example, Monmouth Neuroscience Institute, in association with the Matthew J. Morahan III Health Assessment Program, offers baseline cognitive screening events and concussion evaluations for local school and college athletes.
Like most programs around the country, we use the ImPACT computerized testing to measure reaction times and assess concussions. However, this type of computer testing requires specialized equipment and staff training.
Investigators are still looking for a more simple and cost effective assessment tool that can be used to asses athletes’ reaction times right on the side lines, to allow immediate return to play decisions during the actual game.
Sports medicine physicians from the University of Michigan have developed a homemade device that could be used in this way.
They stuck a hockey puck to then end of a long wooden dowel marked with centimeter spaced lines along its length.
The evaluator holds it in front of the athlete who is seated with one arm resting on a table. The evaluator lines up the puck with the bottom of the athlete’s hand and lets go. Once the athlete has caught the falling stick, the evaluator marks where his hand lands, which gives a quantitative measure of reaction time.
A concussed athlete will have a slower reaction time and take longer to catch the stick (catching it further down) than a healthy athlete.
In a study published last year these investigators first used their homemade device to measure pre-season reaction times of football, soccer and hockey players. Then they waited for these same athletes to get injured with concussions, and had them to re-take the test within at least 48 hours of the head injury. They found that the concussed athletes took significantly longer (sometimes as much as a full second) to catch the rod than before the head trauma.
The catch? You still need a baseline measure for each athlete – but it might be easier to get high school and college kids to do this simple 5min test before the first game of the season than have them go to specialized testing center for a computer based test. Then, with those baseline test results recorded, any coach can repeat the test on the side-lines after an injury and decide if they should be worried.
I am sure the use of a hockey puck was no accident!