A New Spin on The “Founder” of Neurology

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) is regarded by most scholars to be the founder of modern neurology.

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Known to be an excellent clinical teacjer, he was a professor at the University of Paris for 33 years and was  associated with Paris’s Salpêtrière Hospital that lasted throughout his life, ultimately becomiwas known as an excellent medical teacher, and he attracted students from all over Europe. His focus turned to neurology, and he is called by some the founder of modern neurology.

Charcot took an interest in hysteria, a mental disorder with physical manifestations, which he believed to be the result of an inherited weak neurological system, set off by a traumatic event like an accident

He learned the technique of hypnosis to evaluate these patients, and very quickly became a master of the relatively new “science.”

He believed that a hypnotized state was very similar to a bout of hysteria, and so he hypnotized his patients in order to induce and study their symptoms.

Charcot’s work also included other aspects of neurology – he was first to describe the degeneration of ligaments and joint surfaces due to lack of use or control, now called Charcot’s joint. He discovered the importance of small arteries in cerebral hemorrhage.  He described hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy.

He died in 1893 in Morvan, France.

The new movie focuses on his relationship with one hysterical patient named Agustine,

Click here to find out more about this.

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Malingering and Conversion Disorder, What’s the Difference?

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Both lead to mental or neurologic symptoms without any identifiable cause.

The difference is that while malingering is conscious and willful, conversion disorder is subconscious and involuntary.

What does this mean?

Well, malingering is deliberately feigning or exaggerating physical or mental symptoms motivated by a desire for financial compensation or avoiding work or military service:

One famous TV example of malingering was George Costanza, who faked a disability to get access to the executive bathroom:


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Another example, one of my personal favorites, is taken from Dirty Rotten Scoundrels.

Steve Martin, faking a disability to con money out of Glenne Headly, is tormented by competing con man Michael Cane who is pretending to be a doctor:

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In conversion disorder, or hysteria, the mental or physical symptom develops subconsciously in response to some stressful event or situation, and the affected patient truly believes they have a physical problem.

The Freudian theory suggests that a painful experiences is consciously repressed as a way of managing the pain, but this emotional charge is  somehow “converted” into the neurological symptoms.

In this scene from Talladego Nights, Ricky Bobby (Will Ferrell) emotionally traumatized by an accident, believes he is paralyzed.

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In this (long) clip taken from Speed Racer, Speed challenges a washed up racer to “wake up” his paralyzed R arm and race again:

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Finally, there many cases of both malingering and conversion disorder brought on by the stress of war in active duty military, and this recently declassified WW2 documentary from 1946 “Let there be light” shows examples of “Shell ShockedG.I.s undergoing some unconventional treatments.

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Mass hysteria is a particularly interesting social phenomenon where many people in one group together all share the same collective delusion of a disease, fear or exposure:


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Perhaps the most recent example of mass hysteria occurred in LeRoy New York in 2011-2012.   The 12 high school girls all developed Tourette-like symptoms , which led to extensive testing of their school for toxins.  The were all ultimately diagnosed with mass hysteria and conversion disorder:

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So, is there any concrete way to differentiate malingering from conversion disorder?

The answer is, maybe.

There are many clues gleaned from the physical exam that suggest a patient’s findings are non-organic, but this won’t tell you if the process is volitional or subconscious.

In a recent study, investigators compared PET scans from healthy individuals instructed to feign left arm weakness operating a joy stick, compared to controls who did the movement tasks normally.

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The feigners both had abnormal hypofunction of the right anterior prefrontal cortex not seen in the controls.

Perhaps a future objective test for malingering?