Acute Back Pain, What Not To Do!

back pain

70-80% adults have experienced acute back pain, almost 30% seek medical attention, and this problem is one of the commonest reasons for a doctors’ office visit.

Most cases are caused by sprains or tears in one of the numerous muscles or ligaments in the back triggered by twisting or lifting something heavy.

back muscles

These “soft tissue” injuries will usually improve on their own within a few weeks with anti-inflammatory medications and physical therapy.

However a recent study showed that more and more such patients are getting unnecessary imaging studies right away leading to surgeries and other invasive procedures that they don’t need.

Possible reasons cited for the necessary procedures include patient expectations and financial incentives for doctors.

flag_status_redDoctors shouldn’t immediately order an MRI or CT scan to determine the cause of back pain if a patient doesn’t have any red flags such as tingling in the legs — a sign of a nerve problem such as spinal stenosis — or a previous history of cancer.

Otherwise, imaging studies ordered for nonspecific back pain may reveal incidental disk problems, the result of aging, and not the cause of the symptoms.

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This will then often lead to unnecessary and unproven interventional pain management procedures.

Most back pain patients simply need to be told that their pain will improve with antiinflammatory medications, physical therapy, massage therapy, and/or supervised exercise programs.

However, in the words of Dr. John Mafi, one of the study’s authors, “it takes longer to sit and reassure patients that their pain will likely resolve on its own than it does to order an MRI.”

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MS, Tysabri and PML

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The disease:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an auto-immune disease characterized by episodes of multi-focal inflammation and demyelination of the brain and spinal cord, leading to recurrent and unpredictable neurologic compromise (relapses or exacerbations), usually alternating with periods of disease inactivity (remissions).

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The drug:

Tysabri (natalizumab) is a monoclonal antibody that binds to the cell adhesion molecules involved in the white blood cell movement from the blood stream into the central nervous system across the  “blood-brain barrier”.

Keeping these cells out of the brain and spinal cord can help prevent the immune-mediated inflammation and demyelination that leads to clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis.

Studies have shown that patients taking Tysabri have a 64% reduced risk of disability progression and  >80% fewer exacerbations (relapses) compared to placebo.  More than 1/3 patient who take the drug are clinically free of disease activity.

Tysabri is administered by iv infusion once  a month.

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The problem:

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More than 50% of people have been infected with the JC or John Cunningham) virus (JCV), most during childhood or adolescence, often with no symptoms at all or just a minor febrile illness.

Once infected, the virus then lies dormant in the central nervous system, like a Tojan horse, totally inactive and innocuous.

However, if the infected person becomes immune suppressed, for example from HIV infection (AIDS) or from taking a immune presupposing medication, the virus can become reactivated and lead to a very serious brain infection known as Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).  PML leads to large confluent areas of brain infection and demyelination (below), causing disability and death,

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Large confluent areas of demyelination in PML.

When a few Tysabri patients developed PML during the initial clinical trials, the FDA temporarily pulled the drug, but then re-introduced it with more careful monitoring (the TOUCH porgram).

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I’m taking Tysabri, what’s my risk of PML?

There have now  been >350 cases of PML in MS patients taking Tysabri, and this constitutes an overall risk of about 1.5 cases per 1000 (or 0.15%) of those taking the drug.

The risk is higher for patients who have already been been exposed to (and test positive for) JCV, have taken other immunosupressive drugs, or have taken Tysabri for longer times:

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So, if you take Tysabri but test -ve for JCV, your PML risk is 0.07 per 1000, or 0.007% or 1 in 14,000.

Even if you test positive for JCV but haven’t taken prior immunosupressive meds (like azathioprine, methotrexate or mycophenolate) your PML risk is only 0.6 per 1000 or 0.06% or 1 in 1,700.

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So, what should I do?

If you take Tysabri, you should know your JCV status.  If your negative, you should get re-tested every 6-months since there are false negative results and some people do seroconvert every year.

If (or once) you test positive, you don’t need any further blood tests, but you should carefully weigh the risk benefits of continuing to take Tysabri beyond 2 years, particularly if you have had prior exposure to other immunosupressive drugs.

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Click here to find out more about Tysabri and PML from the MS society.

Brain Scans Predict Criminal Behaviour

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Recent research shows that brain scans can predict whether convicted felons are likely to engage in criminal behavior in the future,.

The study involved 100 male prisoners who underwent a functional MRI scan just before they were released.

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During the scan they were shown letters flashing on to a TV screen, either an X (84% of time) or a K (16% of the time).  They were told to press a button within 1 second when the letter X appeared, but do nothing if the letter K appeared.

Because the X appeared most of the time, they would have to stop themselves from pushing the button when the K appeared.  In other words, this was a test of impulsivity.

The investigators analyzed brain activity in the the prisoners’ anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an area located at the front of the brain that is responsible for making decisions, while they performed this task.

ACC

The subjects who made more errors on the task had lower activity in the ACC, suggesting an inclination to act upon impulses without thinking.

After being released from prison, the men were followed up for four years.

Interestingly, the men who had lower levels of ACC activity were re-arrested 2.6 times more for all crimes and 4.3 times more for nonviolent crimes.

A potential neurocognitive biomarker for persistent antisocial behavior?

Click here to find out more.